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婴儿语言学习

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发表于 2017-11-10 00:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
生活圈制作
语言前期 学习阶段 表达特征
    0~3个月
    会用眼睛看着照顾者或他人。
    听到声音(特别是说话的声音)时会安静下来。
    会用微笑或咯咯声,响应他人的微笑或声音。
    当疲倦、饥饿或疼痛时,会用不同的哭声表达情绪。
    3~6个月
    会注视他人的脸。
    会寻找声音来源,当别人呼唤他的名字时会有反应。
    能找出声音来源(如头转向音源/说话者)。
    会发出咯咯声、咕噜咕噜的笑声。
    6~9个月
    会模仿发声,及模仿熟悉的动作与声音。
    会用不同发音方式,表达不同情绪。
    喜欢与大人玩互动游戏,对于较柔的说话声音也会有反应。
    发出重复音节,会玩弄声音音调变化,发出许多类似成人语音的声音。
    9~12个月
    开始懂得吸引别人注意。
    能清楚表达需求(如:挥手表示再见、摇头表示不要)。
    会在对象与大人之间做出协调动作(在大人与想要的东西之间,做出来回顾盼的动作)。
    模仿新的声音或新的动作。
    重复的儿语音节类型一致,音节发出听起来像第一个词汇。
    语言期 学习阶段
    12~18个月
    出现单词的口语。
    会使用仪式性语言(如:再见、嗨、谢谢)。
    会发表意见,表达“不要”等反对、抗议的想法。
    会用一些声音、肢体来获取注意。
    认可:眼神接触、以声音回应、重复字眼。
    18~24个月
    大部分时候会选择用语言来与人沟通。
    早期使用两个词的句子:一开始的组合方式,通常是以记忆中的形式呈现,并且可以在一两个情境中使用。
    约到了24个月大时,组合句的变化较多,意义也较丰富。
    到了第24个月,至少累积了50个字汇,且已经相当接近大人的行事。
    24~36个月
    出现简短会话。
    会与人进行有目的对话。
    一个人玩时也会说话,语言中富有想象力
    懂得描述细节,好让听者理解他的意思。
    会表达情绪,使用一些字吸引他人注意。
    了解两个步骤的简单指令。
    36~48个月
    听语能力进步,开始会从倾听中学习。
    与人交谈时所使用的文法像大人。
    会问问题,回答问题。
    正确使用代名词:你、我、他。
语言发展迟缓的判断指标
0~3个月
    听力发展判断
    对于巨大声响没有惊吓反应
    语言发展判断
    不会发出咕咕、咯咯的声音
    不会发出哭声或愉悦声
    4~6个月
    听力发展判断
    对于音调变化没有反应。
    不会注视、寻找声音来源。
    语言发展判断
    儿语中没有包含不同的音种,如:ㄅ、ㄆ、ㄇ等音。
    不会透过声音,表达兴奋或愤怒。
    7~12个月
    听力发展判断
    没有转向并注视声源的反应能力。
    对于如:过来、要不要等指令没有反应。
    语言发展判断
    儿语中没有包含重复的音节,例如ㄅㄚㄅㄚ、ㄊㄚㄊㄚ。
    不会使用言语或非哭泣的声音,来得到或维持注意力。
    1~2岁
    听力发展判断
    无法指认身体部位或书中图片。
    对于简单的指令如: 丢球、拿鞋子,无法遵从实行或理解。
    语言发展判断
    词汇量没有每个月显著增加。
    不会利用两个单字组成语句。如:把妈妈、水,组成“妈妈喝水”。
    不会使用如:什么?哪里?等疑问句。
    2~3岁
    听力发展判断
    不会区别如:上下、大小的意义。
    无法顺利完成二步骤的指令动作。例如:拿起书,再放在桌上。
    语言发展判断
    无法使用二到三字词的语句来表达想法和要求。
言语能力训练
○模仿面部动作在宝宝情绪很好、很稳定的时候搂抱他,并在他面前经常张口、吐舌或做多种表情,使宝宝逐渐会模仿面部动作或微笑。
○引逗发音发笑用亲切温柔的声音,面对着宝宝,使他能看得见口型,试着对他发单个韵母a(啊) 、o(喔)、u( 呜)、e(鹅)的音,逗着孩子笑一笑,玩一会儿,以刺激他发出声音。快乐情绪是发音的动力。在孩子精神愉快状态下,拿一些带响、能动、鲜红色的玩具,边摇 晃边逗他玩,或与他说话,或用手胳肢胸脯,他将报以愉快的应答--微笑。
言语能力训练(3个月)
○能找声源拿一个拨浪鼓,在距离孩子前方30厘米处摇动,当孩子注意到鼓响时,对孩子说:"宝宝,看拨 浪鼓在这儿!"让宝宝的眼睛盯着鼓,张开手想抓鼓。休息片刻,在宝宝的后方,让 他看不到你的脸,拿这个拨浪鼓摇动,稍停一会儿再问:"拨浪鼓在哪里呢?" 再分别将拨浪鼓慢慢移到孩子能看到的左、右方摇动,注意观察宝宝的眼、耳和手的动作,看宝宝对声源方向的反应。
○对声音的回应经常和孩子说话,逗引他发出声音,家长对小儿发出的声音,给予不同的反应。如亲切和蔼的 言语 、命令式的声音及激动的喊叫等,并使小儿能对不同的声音有不同的回应。做过呼名胎教试验的婴儿在有人叫他名字时能回头寻找,并发出拖长的单元音,或连续的 两个音,如"啊咕""啊呜"等,渐渐地能模仿大人的口形发出声音。
言语能力训练(4个月)
○咿呀学语要养成与宝宝交谈的习惯,要平时见到什么就对宝宝说什么,干什么就讲什么。每次吃奶后,可以 一边将孩子扶起拍拍后背,一边对他说:"宝宝,吃饱了吗?""好吃吗?""香不香?"在换尿布时和他说:"宝宝尿湿了,不舒服吧?"。尽管孩 子还不明白这些话的意思,但他会和着你的声音,嘴里发出啊、喔、鹅等音来,他在用"前言语期的特殊语言和你交谈"。没有前言语期的训练就不可能有日后 优秀的语言素质。
○学发声拿一个带响的玩具,一边逗他玩,一边喊:"宝宝na(拿)住。"同时拉着孩子的手让他握住玩 具,激发小儿能自发地连结两个不同的单音,或者在小儿床上悬挂一个较大的、能发声的塑料娃娃,孩子仰卧在床上,要让他的手脚都能碰到玩具。要逗引他抓、蹬 和发声,注意孩子能否发出ma、na等的近似音,记录能 发出的辅音及时间。
言语能力训练(5个月)
○模仿发音与宝宝面对面,用愉快的口气与表情发出"WuWu"、"mama"、"baba" 等重复音节,逗引宝宝注视你的口形,每发一个重复音节应停顿一下给孩子模仿的机会。接着你手拿个球,问他"球在哪儿"时,把球递到孩子手里,让他亲自 摸一摸,玩一玩,告诉他:"这 是球--球。"边说,边触摸、注视、指认,每日数次。
○叫名回头宝宝早就能听到声音回头去看,但是能否理解自己的名字,此时可以进一步观察 。带宝宝去 街心公园或有其他孩子的地方,父母可先说其他小朋友的名字,看看宝宝有无反应,然后再说宝 宝的名字,看他是否回头。父母应在胎教时,即在妊娠第6个月时就为宝宝取名 ,每次呼唤都用同一个名字。经过孕期一个月呼名训练的婴儿会在出生3个月时知道自己的名字而回头。未经训练的婴儿可在5~7个月时知道自己的名字。切记要 用固定的名字称呼宝宝,如果大人一会儿说"宝宝"一会儿说"文文",一会儿又说"闹闹",经常更改名字,会使孩子无所适从,就会延迟叫名回头的时间。当孩 子听名回头向你笑笑时,要将他抱起来亲吻,并说"你真棒","真聪明",以示表扬。
言语能力训练(6个月)
○模仿发音家长经常发出各种简单辅音,例如bā-bā、爸-爸、mā-mā、妈-妈,d-d、打-打、n-n、拿-拿、w-w、娃-娃、pāi-pāi、拍-拍等,让小儿模仿发音。记录宝宝能发辅音的数目,要求在6个月时能发出4~5个辅音。
○听声辩别人物当爸爸回家时妈妈说"爸爸回来了",宝宝马上朝门的方向转头,看爸爸。宝宝 在父亲怀中 听说"妈妈"时马上朝母亲看,并且要母亲抱。
○听声拿玩具能在听到"娃娃"时拿出娃娃,听到"大象"时拿取大象。形象玩具在此时能促 进听力的发展。
○听儿歌做动作让宝宝面对着妈妈坐在妈妈的膝上,拉住小手边念边摇:"拉大锯,扯大锯,外婆家,唱大 戏。妈妈去 ,爸爸去,小宝宝,也要去!"到最后一个字时将手一松,让宝宝身体向后倾斜。每次都一 样,以后凡是念到"也要去"时宝宝会自己将身体按节拍向后倾倒。
言语能力训练(7个月)
○用动作表示语言继续训练发音,如叫爸爸、妈妈、拿、打、娃娃、拍拍、高举等,多与他说话, 多引他发音 ,扩大他的语言范围。继续训练小儿理解语言的能力,引导小儿用动作来回答,如欢 迎、再见、谢谢、虫子飞,以及听儿歌做1~2种动作表演等。
○懂得"不"妈妈指着热水杯对孩子严肃地说:"烫,不要动!"同时拉着孩子的手轻轻触 摸杯子,然后把他的手离开物品,或轻轻拍打他的手,示意他停止动作。对小孩不该拿的东西要明确地说:"不",使其懂得"不"的意义。此外,还要懂得大 人的摇头摆手也表示"不"。
○听口令把玩具倒手在玩具倒手的基础上,先给孩子一个玩具,让他用左手拿,再给他一块饼干,告 诉他"倒手,倒手",做对了,亲亲他,并奖励他。让小儿练习在口语指导下把玩具倒手,学会两手并用。
言语能力训练(8个月)
○发音继续练习发音,方法同7个月。注意听孩子的发音,当他已能说出不同的单音时,要跟着重复他所发的音,用动作表示音的意义,他再发音时就表扬他。
○表示"要"当孩子要一种东西时,要教他伸手来表示要,然后再拿给他所要的物品,并点头以表示" 谢谢"。
○语言动作联系继续训练小儿理解语言的能力,在拿孩子熟悉的物品时,边说边问:"宝宝要不 要饼干?""宝宝要不要小熊?"让他用手推开或皱眉表示不喜欢;用伸手、点头、谢谢、表示喜欢,表示要。
○服从命令给宝宝讲"坐下","不能吃","给我","让我看看你的新鞋"等,宝宝会 用动作来服 从大人的要求。
言语能力训练(9个月)
○理解语言在与小儿接触中,通过语言和示范告诉孩子怎么做,如坐起来、拿、等一等。训 练小儿理解更多的语言。
○模仿发音继续练习模仿发音,能使用有意义的单词,如"爸爸"、"妈妈"之类的称呼。 也训练他说 一些简单动词,如走、坐、站等。在引导他模仿发音后,要诱导他主动地发出单字的辅音。观察是否见父亲叫"爸爸"或见母亲叫"妈妈"。
○语言动作联系训练小儿能够执行简单的指令,如"小姐姐到咱家玩,我们笑笑欢迎"等,他做对了,大人要鼓掌、喝彩、夸奖,使他为自己的正确理解而高兴,尝到成功的喜悦。
○念儿歌,讲故事,看图书1岁内的幼儿喜欢有韵律的声音和欢快的节奏,念儿歌,读故事时要有亲切而又丰 富的面部 表情、口形和动作,尽管他还不太懂儿歌、故事中表达的意思。给宝宝念的儿歌应短小、朗朗上口。每晚睡前给宝宝读一个简短的故事,最好一字不差,一个记住 了,再换别的以便加深宝宝的印象和记忆。
图书对宝宝来说是一种能打开合上的、能学说话的玩具,因此宝宝非常喜欢大人陪着他看图书,听你给他讲书 中的故事。图书画面要清楚,色彩要鲜艳,图像要大,文字大而对话简短生动,并多次重复出现,便于宝宝模仿。每天坚持念儿歌、讲故事、看图书,并采取有问有 答的方式讲述图书中的故事,耳濡目染,宝宝就会对图书越来越感兴趣,对宝宝学习语言很有帮助。喜欢读书,对他一生具有重要的意义。但是,这么大孩子的注意 力集中时间很短,一般几十秒到1分钟。只要孩子有兴趣,很高兴,就与他一起念儿歌、讲故事、看图书,否则就没有意义了。
言语能力训练(10个月)
○模仿发音继续练习模仿发音,扩大范围,应包括人称、物品名称、人的五官及简单的动词 等,使小儿在主动会叫"爸爸"、"妈妈"之外,还能说其他几个词,模仿大人说话的最后一个音。
○指图回答问题在父母用图画故事书为宝宝讲故事时,当母亲问"谁在吃萝卜"时,宝宝会指着兔子回答。又问"小花猫要到哪儿去",宝宝会指着河边作答。重述父母为他讲的故事。当父母在看书看报时,宝宝也会很像样地拿起故事书,咿咿呀呀地自己讲故事。
言语能力训练(11个月)
○用一个音表示要求宝宝经常是用一个音表示他的各种意思和要求。如"妈妈走"的"走"可以代表妈、妈妈 走啦、去上街、自己走等意思,要鼓励孩子说出来,并做好翻译员;还要诱导孩子联想、比较,比如:宝宝说"球"时,你可把各种颜色大小的球一个一个拿出来, 告诉孩子这是" 红球",那是"绿球"等,或这是"大球",那是"小球"等。
○背儿歌、念唐诗根据宝宝的兴趣,给宝宝念押韵的儿歌、唐诗,不在乎宝宝记住多少,而在 于激起他的兴趣,建立韵律感知觉。
言语能力训练(12个月)
○主动发音
小儿能有意识地叫"爸爸"、"妈妈"以后,还要引导他有意识地发出一个字音,来表示一 个特定的动作或意思,如"走"、"坐"、"拿"、"要"等,从而能表达自己的愿望。与成人进行简单的语言对话,叫他能答应。说出来给予表扬,切不可宝宝一 举手,你就把索要物递给他,这样他就会停顿在动作语言期而不开口说话,造成语言发展滞后。
○妈妈念错了
睡觉前可以给宝宝念一个短小有趣的故事,宝宝常常很快就能记住,他往往是机械的模式记忆,无意识记忆,如果念错了,孩子会马上睁眼,盯着您,表示"你念错了",他会说话时,他便立即反驳说:"不对。"
言语能力训练(13个月)
○说出来再给这个年龄的小儿已经懂得很多意思,但语言表达仍处于单词句期,习惯用动作 表达需要和欲望,如想出去玩,用手指门,想喝饮料用手指冰箱,就是懒得说出来,很多家长采取及时或快速满足的办法,孩子就越来越懒得用语言表达。家长 应当采取"延迟满足"的办法,促使孩子用语言表达意思,教孩子用"是"或"不是","要"或"不要",并配合点头或摇头 动作,坚持"说出来再给"。
○听从吩咐根据宝宝不肯闲着,喜欢做事,好听表扬的特点,每天都给孩子一些展示自己才 能的机会, 吩咐其做些小事,如"扶奶奶上楼梯","给爸爸拿拖鞋来","给娃娃洗脸","哄娃娃 睡觉"等,孩子十分高兴地做各种小事情,因为做好事都会得到"真能干"的夸 奖。
○模仿动物叫给宝宝讲"动物音乐会"的故事,让宝宝模仿动物叫,如拿出小 猫玩具,发 出"喵喵"的叫声;拿出小羊的图画,发出"咩咩"的声音,宝宝听到声音觉得好笑,就会跟着学叫;再学习牛叫"哞哞",鸡叫"喔喔"......以后凡是拿出 玩具或图画,孩子都会很快乐地发出特有的叫声,会大大促进孩子开口说话的兴趣。
言语能力训练(14个月)
○指(说)名字在帮助小儿认识自己和家里人的基础上,教孩子学说家庭成员的名字。先教他一 个人名字,反复练习,会说后再教第二个人的名字,接着鼓励孩子区别这些名字。如:"宝宝把糖拿给××","把球送给×××"等。他做对了,要亲吻他,抱 抱他,夸奖他。
○表达在学会用语言正确地表达自己的要求的基础上,进一步训练用两个字以上的词组 表达。如妈 妈问"到哪儿玩去?"教他回答说"上街玩去"。
○说儿歌押韵最后一个字孩子一面随儿歌做动作时,一面跟着说押韵的一个字。渐渐大人 在念儿歌时故意空出最后一个字,让孩子补上。
○跟着说口令"一、二、三"在牵着上楼梯时可让孩子说一、二、三,在搭积木 时也可以边搭边说一、二、三。在越障碍游戏时,可说:"一、二、三,翻大山,哎哟翻过大山了。"
○发出生活中的声音如打雷"隆隆",打铃"玲玲",拍手"啪啪",穿高跟鞋走路"咯噔咯噔"等 ,以丰富孩子听声模仿的能力及听与动作的统合能力。
言语能力训练(15个月)
○语言事物联系继续多教小儿学说物名,不断增加小儿的单词量,并引导小儿将物名与动作地点联系起来,如和孩子一起看画片后,告诉他把画片放到盒子里,然后将盒子再放到桌子上面。
○由单词句到电报句1.5岁以后婴儿的语言能力发展很快,由原来的单词句(如"妈妈""爸爸 ""电灯"等)逐渐 发展到跟大人学舌,但是,语言的句子还不完善,非常简单,被称为电报句。如"妈妈走","走"的含义很多,"爸爸帽","帽"的含义也很多,另外往往顺序 颠 倒,如"两只耳朵有"等。这时的家长应利用游戏,促进宝宝的语言发展。并注意以下几点。
1继续发展宝宝的语言理解能力。
2鼓励宝宝用语言表达出他的欲望和要求,大人不要先替孩子说出来。
3成人要用语言来调节儿童的行为,扩大交往,并随时随地把接触到的事物名称 、特征告诉孩子 ,以促进语言快速发展。
○听从指示选择孩子已熟悉的物品,给他一些简单的指示,如"吃饭前,洗洗手","喝完 奶,擦擦嘴 ",训练他能听从指示,做到后要表扬。如孩子做不到,要带着他去做。
○说名字继续练习说名字。如家长用提问的方式问宝宝"你叫什么?"鼓励他说出自己的 名字和小朋 友的名字。也可以用呼叫的方式喊他的姓名,让他作"有"的回答。反复练习。
○背诵儿歌的第一句或最后一句在孩子学会押韵最后一个字的基础上,常常先学会儿歌的三个字的第一句话。如 果最后一句 有特殊的动作也较易学会。
言语能力训练(16个月)
○双语句为了使小孩能够较准确地使用一些词,要鼓励小孩自己表述,能够多说一些有名 词和动词的 双语句。如"宝宝喝水","我要","我喜欢"等要求语,以及"我不要","不喜欢" 等否定语。并教孩子记住自己的名字。
○分辨声音给小孩听幼儿磁带,教他分辨火车声、锣鼓声、刮风声、下雨声、流水声、鸟语 、动物叫等 声音,再结合日常生活中及游玩中的所见所闻,让孩子听声说出"下雨"、"刮风"、" 打鼓"等。这种分辨声音的训练,应从生后2个月就开始。
○增加词汇量父母应该准确说出生活中常用的词汇,并鼓励小孩模仿,并运用于生活中, 以增加词汇 量。如"吃饭"、"扫地"、"梳头"、"洗手"、"推车"等。
○背诵儿歌第一句和最后一句用动作配合背诵,按节拍而突出押韵的字,使孩子乐于背诵。
○讲画片给小儿看画片,根据图意编故事给他听,反复3~5次后,让他看着画片(同一张 画 )讲出这个故事,要鼓励他说出故事中的一个词或短句。如"小鸟飞"、"火车跑"等。
言语能力训练(17个月)
○说出姓名教小儿准确地说出自己的名字(包括姓),并使小儿能够说出小朋友的名字、爸爸 的名字和妈 妈的名字。但是一般情况下要让孩子称呼自己的父母为"爸爸"和"妈妈",不直呼名字。
○用我代替名字孩子往往用名字形容自己的东西。拿属于孩子自己的东西,鼓励他说"我的衣 服","我 的床","我的鞋子",而代替"宝宝的衣服","宝宝的床","宝宝的鞋子"等,这是 小孩子自我意识的萌芽。说对了要称赞他,亲吻他。
○用一个词形容家里的人如"爸爸高","妈妈漂亮","宝宝乖",使孩子的词汇渐渐丰富起来。以后 他会用词去 形容玩具,如"娃娃可爱","大象鼻子长","小猪胖乎乎"等。
○背诵儿歌经过2~3个月的学习,有些孩子能背诵3个字一句的儿歌4句,有些能记住第一句 和最后的一 句。几个孩子在一起背诵更有游戏性,一边背,一边表演动作,就易于学会。
○背诵数字1~5常常听口令的孩子很快学会说一、二、三,或者背数到五。孩子只能背诵,不会 点数,口手不 同步。
言语能力训练(18个月)
○问"你"时用"我"回答如问"你几岁啦"时,孩子会说"我两岁",而不是"你两岁"。这是很大的进步,孩子 懂得你和我的意义。
○同娃娃讲话玩布娃娃时,口里不断地讲一些让人听不太懂的话,有时学大人的口气"噢,乖乖,不哭" ,"饿啦,给奶"等。有时自言自语或者发出古怪的声音自己玩。
○喜欢听讲过的故事在睡前总是要大人讲故事陪着睡。孩子在心中默默背诵着故事的每一句话,当大人讲的与过 去不同,就会插一两个字来更正。
○完整地背诵儿歌孩子喜欢参加在一起共同背诵,也能自己背诵。如果有1~2句还不太熟,在共同背诵时可以 得到别人的提醒而慢慢学会。已经背会一首,就喜欢再背另一首新的。
言语能力训练(19个月)
○记住家人的称谓教孩子记住爷爷、奶奶、爸爸、妈妈的称谓,可以将称谓写成12厘米见方 的字卡,进行认名游戏,认对了,给以鼓励。在孩子面前用"你"来提问,用"我"来回答问题,如"这是你的鞋吗?"他可以"我的鞋"或"这是××的鞋"来回 答。"你"、"我"是一种相对的概念,孩子 掌握起来有一定的难度,开始时有混淆现象,大人不要着急,一定要用简单的句子和具体的物品在日常生活中练习。这样孩子就会在轻松的气氛中,无意识地记住。
○说儿歌/听英语歌教小儿念儿歌,每首儿歌四句,每句三个字,听起来押韵,读起来朗朗上口,反 复练习。注意,完全会背诵一首后再教新的。这样提高了小儿语言能力,增强了韵律感、记忆力,同时也激发了小儿的学习兴趣。此时的小儿可以多听英语歌,戏耍之中锻炼了语感。
○猜声音让小孩听周围会发出声音的东西,如窗外的鸟,路上的汽车,家里的小动物或门铃、电话。 听到这些声音时,问孩子是什么东西发出的声音,答不出来就直接让孩子边看边听,并告诉 他。大人讲话的声音,走路的声音也可让孩子辨识。
○完整句教小儿说完整的句子,即包括主语、谓语、宾语的句子。如"我要上街","爸 爸上班去了 "等,并教小儿学会使用一些简单的形容词。如"我要红色的上衣","我要圆的饼干"等。注意,这些形容词一定是简单、形象和孩子生活中最常见的。
言语能力训练(20个月)
○看画、说话与小儿一起看生活日用品的图片,边看画片边讲各种物品的特点及用途,让孩子 模仿大人的语言,边指画边练习说,每天练习2~3次。
○练习表达和孩子一起看动物的画册,让孩子回答"这是什么动物",并能用言语表达"这个动物在干 什么"。
○念3个音节的儿歌由3个音节的儿歌学起。母亲带着表情教唱儿歌,孩子跟随着一句句地学唱,并 学会边唱边打拍子,边唱边以动作配合,增强韵律和快乐感。
○左和右学过拿筷子的孩子会很快分清拿筷子的手是右手,拿碗的手是左手。父母同孩子练 习分左右时 要和孩子在同一个方向,不宜在对面教导。因为左右也是相对的,小儿分辨时有一定难度。
言语能力训练(21个月)
○表达在小儿熟知家庭成员名字、职业的基础上,训练孩子回答成人提出的与此相关的问题。如"你爸爸叫什么名字?""干什么工作?"锻炼小孩子表达能力。
○听词模仿动作不断地说出各类能表现动作、表情的词,让孩子模仿,如"洗衣服"、"开汽车 "、"笑"、"哭"、"唱"等,也可以大人做动作,让孩子说词语。
○说物品的用途选择一些孩子熟悉的物品,如"茶杯","梳子""刀"、"剪"、"牙刷"等 ,让孩子逐 个地说出它们的名称和用途。
○说出反义词家长先举例,如大人说"大",孩子答"小",跟着说出上、高、长、瘦、前、 左、里、黑 、软、深、远、快等的反义词。如果答不上,就可以替他说出答案,或者再解释词义。也可以让孩子当老师,让孩子提问,家长作答。或者父母和孩子三个人玩,轮流提问和回答。
言语能力训练(22个月)
○复述故事教孩子看图说话。开始最好由妈妈讲图片给他听,让他听并模仿妈妈讲的话,逐 步过渡到提问题让他回答,再让孩子按照问题的顺序练习讲述。
○讲述自己的印象以回答的形式,引导孩子说说自己的见闻。向孩子提出的问题尽量具体些,能激 发孩子的兴 趣。尽量让他讲自己经历的事情,例如:今天上街买了些什么?遇见谁?看到哪些趣事等。
○如果......与孩子面对面坐下讲故事或讲动物画片,不断提问并引导小孩回答如果......后面 的话。例如:"龟兔赛跑时,小兔不睡觉就会怎样?小兔子乖乖如果以为是妈妈回来把门打开就会怎么样?"通这样的训练使孩子学会初步推理。
○丰富词汇量当孩子自言自语或与他人交谈时,要注意丰富其词汇量,可以用进一步提问的方式 使孩子词汇 丰富。例如:孩子讲到发烧打针时大人问"发烧时妈妈带宝宝上哪去?""谁给宝宝看病?" "谁给宝宝打针?""宝宝哭了没有?""针打在什么地方?""现在还痛不痛?" 等。如果答 不上来就帮他说出,这些经历过的事,有了可联系的词汇就不容易遗忘。
○表达继续训练表达能力,如带小孩去公园玩,边欣赏景色边谈大自然中的植物、鸟 、兽、鱼、虫、四季变化、彩云、夜晚星空等。然后,让他用自己的话讲述去新地方的经历,以提高言语表达水平。
○反义词配对与孩子一起看画片或实物,教大小、冷热、高低、胖瘦等反义词,鼓励他结合日常生活中遇 到的事物,反复练习。如"爸爸的鞋是大的,我的鞋是小的。""爷爷很胖,妈妈很瘦"等。
○背诵唐诗继续教小儿古诗,一首首背诵,鼓励他自己能背诵2~4首古诗和4首儿歌。
○说英语继续教小儿英语单词、英语歌,主要是名词、动词和礼貌用语,反复练习。教唱 英语歌是幼儿学英语的好方法。
○猜谜语与小孩玩猜谜语游戏,注意用物品的特征编谜语,先让小儿熟悉物品及特征,然 后再猜谜。
婴儿早期语言训练的误区
 误区一:认为宝宝太小听不懂
  父母是孩子学习语言的第一任老师,对孩子语言发展有深刻影响。婴儿听觉研究专家发现,婴儿脑内的"听觉地图"大概到1岁左右完成,在此期间,给零岁婴儿输送越多的有意义的声音,越能促进婴儿脑内主管听觉的神经元的敏感性。另外,还有研究表明,婴儿获得的词汇量的多少,很大程度上取决于母亲对婴儿说话的数量。
  刚出生的婴儿,对成人的话确实听不懂,但婴儿的学习能力很强,当妈妈总是冲他微笑,对他说:"宝宝,我是妈妈"。"宝宝,这是奶,你饿了吧"。当给宝宝穿衣服时,当给宝宝喂奶、换尿布时,要和宝宝说话,告诉他:"妈妈在给你换衣服,凉不凉啊?伸伸小胳膊、抬起头"等等。也就是说尽可能地与孩子多说话,这是发展孩子的语言能力所必不可少的。
  时间一长,这种语言信息就储存在了他的脑子里。随着他的智力发育,再经过几十次的语言重复,他就明白,原来总抱着我的人就是妈妈。到了1岁的时候,他可能会叫"爸爸,妈妈"了,当成人对他说:"宝宝,你的球呢?"他会转身去找,说明他已经明白了话的意思。当到了一定时候宝宝的语言会突然爆发,于是很多话都会说了。
  误区二:用"奶话"(儿语)和宝宝说话  
  "奶话"(儿语)指刚出生8~9个月的婴儿,随着成人的语音刺激"咿咿呀呀"学话。这时,年轻的父母看到孩子想要说话的急切样子,便教起了诸如"汪汪(狗)"、"咕咚咕咚(喝水)"之类的奶话。这种教授方法虽然生动有趣,符合孩子的特点,有助于孩子形象思维的开发,但是却容易忽略孩子抽象思维的培养与发展。其实,对于孩子来说,记住"狗"和"汪汪"所花的时间相差无几,而前者是迟早要学的语言,后者却是不久就要抛弃的语言。因此,为了使孩子的思维能力得到全面的开发,家长在教孩子学说话时,应注意将理性词汇和感性词汇相结合。
  儿童语言发展有其自身的阶段性,一般都是经历单词句(用一个词表达多种意思)、多词句(两个以上词表达意思)。说出完整句子这几个阶段,父母对孩子进行教育时,应了解这一规律,但又不能迁就他,而应通过正确的教育引导孩子的语言向更高阶段发展。
  误区三:过分满足宝宝的要求
  当宝宝已经明白成人的话以后,而他还不会从口中说出,如果说宝宝指着水瓶,成人马上明白,这是宝宝想喝水了,于是把水瓶递给他,这种满足宝宝要求的方法使宝宝的语言发展缓慢,因为他不用说话,成人就能明白他的意图,他的要求就已经达到了,因此宝宝失去了说话的机会。当宝宝想喝水时,你可以给他一个空水瓶,他拿着空水瓶,想要得到水时,会努力去说"水",仅仅说一个字,你就应该鼓励他,因为这是不小的进步。他懂得用语言表达自己的要求了。
  误区四:不让老人说家乡方言
  有些父母上班忙就把宝宝交给奶奶爷爷看护,但又担心老人说的是家乡方言,会影响宝宝以后的语言发展,所以就一再叮嘱:不让老人和宝宝说话。有的家长认为和宝宝说话他也听不懂,所以不用说也可以。
  宝宝生来就喜欢听各种不同的音响,喜欢父母和他们说话,喜欢这种听觉刺激,虽然他们听不懂,但我们可以看到他们会有不同的反应,开始会很惊讶地看你,看你的表情,正哭闹着会突然停止。宝宝认真接收家长给他的听觉刺激,有利于听觉注意力的集中和灵敏。另外用方言和宝宝说话也可以让宝宝多掌握一种语言,父母后期注意培养就不成问题,不与宝宝说话会使孩子因缺乏听觉来源刺激而减弱甚至丧失听觉功能。
  误区五:重复宝宝的错误发音
  刚学会说话的宝宝虽然基本上能用语言表达自己的愿望和要求,但是有很多宝宝还存在着发音不准的现象,如把"吃"说成"七",把"狮子"说成"希几","苹果"说成"苹朵"等等,这是因为小儿发音器官发育不够完善。听觉的分辨能力和发音器官的调节能力都林较弱,还不能正确掌握某些音的发音方法,不会运用发音器官的某些部位。如在发"吃"、"狮"的音时,舌向上卷,呈勺状,有种悬空感,而小宝宝不会做这种动作,就把舌头放平了。于是错音就出来了。对于这种情况,父母不要学孩子的发音,而应当用正确的语言来和宝宝说话,时间一长,在正确语音的指导下,发音就逐渐正确。



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